Spousal Right of Election in New York
There are certain things you can't do in life. You can't roller skate in a buffalo herd. You can't spit into the wind . We all know you can't take it with you . Unless you have a signed agreement in recordable form, you can't disinherit your spouse.
While many schemers would like to leave all of their money to a girlfriend or boyfriend (depending, of course upon their personal predilections), persons dying as New York residents are subject to the terms of our state's Estates Powers and Trusts Law (EPTL) which provides that spouses have basic rights of inheritance which cannot be ignored and which will survive being cut out of a will by an angry or disingenuous husband or wife.
This requirement can be circumvented only by a signed contract between spouses. Traditionally, pre-nuptial agreements provide for the parties to "contract-out" of the provisions of the EPTL as do separation agreements. Even though the entry of a judgment of divorce automatically disinherits each spouse from each other, that period of time between the date a final divorce settlement is inked and the papers are actually submitted to the court clerk, approved and signed by a judge can be agonizingly long and the parties should be protected by a provision in the agreement that each waives his or her right of election under the law.
In waiving inheritance rights from one's spouse, very basic and important legal rights are being conceded. In order for such a waiver to stand up , both parties should be represented by independent competent counsel to insure that they did this while on a level legal playing field. Lawyers experienced in matrimonial law should be engaged to prepare and supervise such an agreement which should contain specific recitations as to just what rights are given up and which must be predicated upon the parties providing detailed disclosure of their personal assets to each other in order to insure its viability in the face of a challenge. The agreement must be written, signed and in recordable form. That means that it is not merely notarized but that the notaries who witness the parties' signatures do so with a specifically-worded acknowledgement that would permit the document to be recorded by the county clerk just as we might record a deed or mortgage ( these marital documents are kept by the clerk in confidential files).
For those of you who are reading this long after midnight in your pajamas and would like to have a little help falling asleep, section 5-1.1-A of the New York EPTL appears below in all of its regal majesty. Sweet Dreams:
§ 5-1.1-A Right of election by surviving spouse
(a) Where a decedent dies on or after September first, nineteen hundred ninety-two and is survived by a spouse, a personal right of election is given to the surviving spouse to take a share of the decedent's estate, subject to the following:
(1) For the purpose of this section, the decedent's estate includes the capital value, as of the decedent's death, of any property described in subparagraph (b)(1).
(2) The elective share, as used in this paragraph, is the pecuniary amount equal to the greater of (i) fifty thousand dollars or, if the capital value of the net estate is less than fifty thousand dollars, such capital value, or (ii) one third of the net estate. In computing the net estate, debts, administration expenses and reasonable funeral expenses shall be deducted, but all estate taxes shall be disregarded, except that nothing contained herein relieves the surviving spouse from contributing to all such taxes the amounts apportioned against him or her under 2-1.8.
(3) The term "testamentary provision", as used in this paragraph, includes, in addition to dispositions made by the decedent's will, distributions of property pursuant to 4-1.1 and any transaction described as a testamentary substitute in subparagraph (b)(1).
(4) The share of the testamentary provisions to which the surviving spouse is entitled hereunder (the "net elective share") is his or her elective share, as defined in subparagraphs (1) and (2), reduced by the capital value of any interest which passes absolutely from the decedent to such spouse, or which would have passed absolutely from the decedent to such spouse but was renounced by the spouse, (i) by intestacy, (ii) by testamentary substitute as described in subparagraph (b)(1), or (iii) by disposition under the decedent's last will.
(A) Unless the decedent has provided otherwise, if a spouse elects under this section, such election shall have the same effect with respect to any interest which passes or would have passed to the spouse, other than absolutely, as though the spouse died on the same date but immediately before the death of the decedent.
(B) For the purposes of this subparagraph (4), (i) an interest in property shall be deemed to pass other than absolutely from the decedent to the spouse if the interest so passing consists of less than the decedent's entire interest in that property or consists of any interest in a trust or trust equivalent created by the decedent; and (ii) an interest in property shall be deemed to pass absolutely from the decedent to the spouse if it is not deemed to pass other than absolutely.
(5) Where a decedent dies before September first, nineteen hundred ninety-four, paragraphs (c)(1)(D) through (c)(1)(K) of section 5-1.1 shall apply except that the words "fifty thousand dollars" shall be substituted for the words "ten thousand dollars" wherever they appear in such paragraphs.
(b) Inter vivos dispositions treated as testamentary substitutes for the purpose of election by surviving spouse.
(1) Where a person dies after August thirty-first, nineteen hundred ninety-two and is survived by a spouse who exercises a right of election under paragraph (a), the transactions affected by and property interests of the decedent described in clauses (A) through (H), whether benefiting the surviving spouse or any other person, shall be treated as testamentary substitutes and the capital value thereof, as of the decedent's death, shall be included in the net estate subject to the surviving spouse's elective right except to the extent that the surviving spouse has executed a waiver of release pursuant to paragraph (e) with respect thereto. Notwithstanding the foregoing, a transaction, other than a transaction described in clause (G), that is irrevocable or is revocable only with the consent of a person having a substantial adverse interest (including any such transactions with respect to which the decedent retained a special power of appointment as defined in 10-3.2), will constitute a testamentary substitute only if it is effected after the date of the marriage.
(A) Gifts causa mortis.
(B) The aggregate transfers of property (including the transfer, release or relinquishment of any property interest which, but for such transfer, release or relinquishment, would come within the scope of clause (F)), other than gifts causa mortis and transfers coming within the scope of clauses (G) and (H), to or for the benefit of any person, made after August thirty-first, nineteen hundred ninety-two, and within one year of the death of the decedent, to the extent that the decedent did not receive adequate and full consideration in money or money's worth for such transfers; provided, however, that any portion of any such transfer that was excludible from taxable gifts pursuant to subsections (b) and (e) of section two thousand five hundred three of the United States Internal Revenue Code, [FN1] including any amounts excluded as a result of the election by the surviving spouse to treat any such transfer as having been made one half by him or her, shall not be treated as a testamentary substitute.
(C) Money deposited, together with all dividends or interest credited thereon, in a savings account in the name of the decedent in trust for another person, with a banking organization, savings and loan association, foreign banking corporation or organization or bank or savings and loan association organized under the laws of the United States, and remaining on deposit at the date of the decedent's death.
(D) Money deposited after August thirty-first, nineteen hundred sixty-six, together with all dividends or interest credited thereon, in the name of the decedent and another person and payable on death, pursuant to the terms of the deposit or by operation of law, to the survivor, with a banking organization, savings and loan association, foreign banking corporation or organization or bank or savings and loan association organized under the laws of the United States, and remaining on deposit at the date of the decedent's death.
(E) Any disposition of property made by the decedent whereby property, at the date of his or her death, is held (i) by the decedent and another person as joint tenants with a right of survivorship or as tenants by the entirety where the disposition was made after August thirty-first, nineteen hundred sixty-six, or (ii) by the decedent and is payable on his or her death to a person other than the decedent or his or her estate.
(F) Any disposition of property or contractual arrangement made by the decedent, in trust or otherwise, to the extent that the decedent (i) after August thirty-first, nineteen hundred ninety-two, retained for his or her life or for any period not ascertainable without reference to his or her death or for any period which does not in fact end before his or her death the possession or enjoyment of, or the right to income from, the property except to the extent that such disposition or contractual arrangement was for an adequate consideration in money or money's worth; or (ii) at the date of his or her death retained either alone or in conjunction with any other person who does not have a substantial adverse interest, by the express provisions of the disposing instrument, a power to revoke such disposition or a power to consume, invade or dispose of the principal thereof. The provisions of this subparagraph shall not affect the right of any income beneficiary to the income undistributed or accrued at the date of death nor shall they impair or defeat any right which has vested on or before August thirty-first, nineteen hundred ninety-two.
(G) Any money, securities or other property payable under a thrift, savings, retirement, pension, deferred compensation, death benefit, stock bonus or profit-sharing plan, account, arrangement, system or trust, except that with respect to a plan to which subsection (a)(11) of section four hundred one of the United States Internal Revenue Code [FN1] applies or a defined contribution plan to which such subsection does not apply pursuant to paragraph (B)(iii) thereof, only to the extent of fifty percent of the capital value thereof. Notwithstanding the foregoing, a transaction described herein shall not constitute a testamentary substitute if the decedent designated the beneficiary or beneficiaries of the plan benefits on or before September first, nineteen hundred ninety-two and did not change such beneficiary designation thereafter.
(H) Any interest in property to the extent the passing of the principal thereof to or for the benefit of any person was subject to a presently exercisable general power of appointment, as defined in section two thousand forty-one of the United States Internal Revenue Code, [FN1] held by the decedent immediately before his or her death or which the decedent, within one year of his or her death, released (except to the extent such release results from a lapse of the power which is not treated as a release pursuant to section two thousand forty-one of the United States Internal Revenue Code) or exercised in favor of any person other than himself or herself or his or her estate.
(2) Transactions described in clause (D) or (E) (i) shall be treated as testamentary substitutes in the proportion that the funds on deposit were the property of the decedent immediately before the deposit or the consideration for the property described in clause (E) (i) was furnished by the decedent. The surviving spouse shall have the burden of establishing the proportion of the decedent's contribution; provided, however, that where the surviving spouse is the other party to the transaction, it will be conclusively presumed that the proportion of the decedent's contribution is one-half. For the purpose of this subparagraph, the court may accept such evidence as is relevant and competent, whether or not the person offering such evidence would otherwise be competent to testify.
(3) The property referred to in clause (E) shall include United States savings bonds and other United States obligations.
(4) The provisions of this paragraph shall not prevent a corporation or other person from paying or transferring any funds or property to a person otherwise entitled thereto, unless there has been served personally upon such corporation or other person a certified copy of an order enjoining such payment or transfer made by the surrogate's court having jurisdiction of the decedent's estate or by another court of competent jurisdiction. A corporation or other person paying or transferring any funds or property described in clause (G) of subparagraph one of this paragraph to a person otherwise entitled thereto, shall be held harmless and free from any liability for making such payment or transfer, in any action or proceeding which involves such funds or property. Such order may be made, on notice to such persons and in such manner as the court may direct, upon application of the surviving spouse or any other interested party and on proof that the surviving spouse has exercised his or her right of election under paragraph (a). Service of a certified copy of such order on the corporation or other person holding such fund or property shall be a defense, during the effective period of the order, in any action or proceeding which involves such fund or property.
(5) This paragraph shall not impair or defeat the rights of creditors of the decedent with respect to any matter as to which any such creditor has rights.
(6) In case of a conflict between this paragraph and any other provision of law affecting the transactions described in subparagraph (1) of this paragraph, this paragraph controls.
(7) If any part of this section is preempted by federal law with respect to a payment or an item of property included in the net estate, a person who, not for value, received that payment or item of property is obligated to return to the surviving spouse that payment or item of property or is personally liable to the surviving spouse for the amount of that payment or the value of that item of property, to the extent required under this section.
(c) General provisions governing right of election.
(1) Where an election has been made under this section, the will or other instrument making a testamentary provision, as the case may be, is valid as to the residue after the share to which the surviving spouse is entitled has been deducted, and the terms of such will or instrument remain otherwise effective so far as possible, subject, however, to the provisions of clause (a)(4)(A).
(2) Except as otherwise expressly provided in the will or other instrument making a testamentary provision, ratable contribution to the share to which the surviving spouse is entitled shall be made by the beneficiaries and distributees (including the recipients of any such testamentary provision), other than the surviving spouse, under the decedent's will, by intestacy and other instruments making testamentary provisions, which contribution may be made in cash or in the specific property received from the decedent by the person required to make such contribution or partly in cash and partly in such property as such person in his or her discretion shall determine.
(3) The right of election is personal to the surviving spouse, except that an election may be made by:
(A) The guardian of the property of an infant spouse, when so authorized by the court having jurisdiction of the decedent's estate.
(B) The committee of an incompetent spouse, when so authorized by the court that appointed the committee.
(C) The conservator of a conservatee spouse, when so authorized by the court that appointed the conservator.
(D) The guardian ad litem for the surviving spouse when so authorized by the court that appointed such guardian.
(E) A guardian authorized under Article 81 of the mental hygiene law, when so authorized by the court that appointed the guardian.
(4) Any question arising as to the right of election shall be determined by the court having jurisdiction of the decedent's estate in a proceeding brought for that purpose on notice to all interested persons in such manner as the court may direct, or in a proceeding for the judicial settlement of the accounts of the personal representative.
(5) Upon application by a surviving spouse who has made an election under this section, the court may make an order cancelling such election, provided that no adverse rights have intervened and no prejudice is shown to creditors of such spouse or other persons interested in the estate. Such application shall be made on notice to such persons and in such manner as the court may direct. A certified copy of such order shall be indexed and recorded in the same manner as a notice of pendency of an action in the office of the clerk of the county in which any real property of the decedent is situated.
(6) The right of election granted by this section is not available to the spouse of a decedent who was not domiciled in this state at the time of death, unless such decedent has elected, under paragraph (h) of 3-5.1, to have the disposition of his or her property situated in this state governed by the laws of this state.
(7) The decedent's estate shall include all property of the decedent wherever situated.
(8) An election made by the surviving spouse under this section is in lieu of any right of dower to which such spouse may be entitled.
(9) The references in this paragraph to sections of the United States Internal Revenue Code [FN1] are to the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended. Such references, however, shall be deemed to constitute references to any corresponding provisions of any subsequent federal tax code.
(d) Procedure for exercise of right of election.
(1) An election under this section must be made within six months from the date of issuance of letters testamentary or of administration, as the case may be, but in no event later than two years after the date of decedent's death. Written notice of such election shall be served upon any personal representative in the manner herein provided, or upon a person named as executor in a will on file in the surrogate's court in a case where such will has not yet been admitted to probate, and the original thereof shall be filed and recorded, with proof of service, in the surrogate's court in which such letters were issued within six months from the date of the issuance of letters but in no event later than two years from the date of decedent's death. Such notice may be served by mailing a copy thereof, addressed to any personal representative, or to the nominated executor, as the case may be, at the place of residence stated in the designation required by SCPA 708 or in such other manner as the surrogate may direct.
(2) The time to make such election may be extended before expiration by an order of the surrogate's court from which such letters issued for a further period not exceeding six months upon any one application. If the spouse defaults in filing such election within the time provided in subparagraph (d)(1), the surrogate's court may relieve the spouse from such default and authorize the making of an election within the period fixed by the order, provided that no decree settling the account of the personal representative has been made and that twelve months have not elapsed since the issuance of the letters. An application for relief from the default and for an extension of time to elect shall be made upon a petition showing reasonable cause and on notice to such persons and in such manner as the surrogate may direct. A certified copy of such order shall be indexed and recorded in the same manner as a notice of pendency of an action in the office of the clerk of each county in which real property of the decedent is situated.
(3) The time limited in this paragraph for making an election is exclusive and shall not be suspended or otherwise affected by any provision of law, except that the surrogate may, in his or her discretion, permit an election to be made in behalf of an infant or incompetent spouse at any time up to, but no later than, the entry of the decree of the first judicial account of the representative of the estate, made more than seven months after the issuance of letters.
(e) Waiver or release of right of election.
(1) A spouse, during the lifetime of the other, may waive or release a right of election, granted by this section, against a particular or any last will or a testamentary substitute, as described in subparagraph (b)(1) made by the other spouse. A waiver or release of all rights in the estate of the other spouse is a waiver or release of a right of election against any such last will or testamentary provision.
(2) To be effective under this section, a waiver or release must be in writing and subscribed by the maker thereof, and acknowledged or proved in the manner required by the laws of this state for the recording of a conveyance of real property.
(3) Such a waiver or release is effective, in accordance with its terms, whether:
(A) Executed before or after the marriage of the spouses.
(B) Executed before, on or after September first, nineteen hundred sixty-six.
(C) Unilateral in form, executed only by the maker thereof, or bilateral in form, executed by both spouses.
(D) Executed with or without consideration.
(E) Absolute or conditional.
(4) If there is in effect at the time of the decedent's death a waiver, or a consent to the decedent's waiver, executed by the surviving spouse with respect to any survivor benefit, or right to such benefit, under subsection (a)(11) of section four hundred one or section four hundred seventeen of the United States Internal Revenue Code, [FN1] then such waiver shall be deemed to be a waiver within the meaning of this paragraph (e) against the testamentary substitute constituting such benefit.